The Fly.io Architecture
Application code runs in Firecracker microVMs. These are lightweight, secure virtual machines based on strong hardware virtualization. Your workloads are safely isolated no matter where they’re running on our infrastructure.
MicroVMs provide strong hardware-virtualization-based security and workload isolation, this allows us to safely run applications from different customers on shared hardware.
We make a best-effort attempt to dedicate hardware resources to only one microVM at a time. CPU cores, for instance, should only ever be doing work for one microVM so your apps don't have to contend with
The virtualized applications run on dedicated physical servers with 8-32 physical CPU cores and 32-256GB of RAM.
We broadcast and accept traffic from ranges of IP addresses (both IPv4 and IPv6) in all our datacenters. When we receive a connection on one of those IPs, we match it back to an active customer application, and then proxy the TCP connection to the closest available microVM.
Every server in our infrastructure runs a Rust-based proxy named
fly-proxy. The proxy is responsible for accepting client connections, matching them to customer applications, applying handlers (eg: TLS termination), and backhaul between servers.
If you have users in Dallas, and an available MicroVM in Chicago, we will accept traffic in Dallas, terminate TLS (unless you've disabled that handler), and then connect to your MicroVM over a Wireguard tunnel between datacenters. Wireguard allows us to pass along almost any kind of network connection with very little additional latency.